Circumstitions: HIV


Scientists have power by virtue of the respect commanded by the discipline. We may therefore be sorely tempted to misuse that power in furthering a personal prejudice or social goal -- why not provide that extra oomph by extending the umbrella of science over a personal preference in ethics or politics? But we cannot, lest we lose the very respect that tempted us in the first place. ~Stephen Jay Gould Bully for Brontosaurus, pp 429-30



Voodoo science
Circumcision as Nail Soup
"Therefore Carthage must be destroyed"
Flawed studies
 the Random Clinical Tests

Uganda and Kenya
 Number Needed to Treat
South Africa
 Subjects unrepresentative
Relative Risk Ratio misleading
The three studies compared
Confounding factors
Method of circumcision
Loss from study
Non-sexual transmission
Blood-borne transmission
Effect of curtailing the studies
The human factor
The Hawthorne Effect
Other published cautions

Misreported studies

Gray - 3 infections made to look like 255
Warner - statistically insignificant protection of a small subset

Contrary studies

Bailey - no protection to men in Kenya
Connelly - no protection to black South Africans
Auvert - no protection to young South Africans
Gust - no protection to gay men
Grulich - no protection to insertive Australian gay men (though it has been reported as if there is)
Jozkowski - no protection to US gay men
Jameson - no protection to men who have sex with men
Millett - no protection to US Black and Latino men
who have unprotected insertive sex with men
McDaid - no protection to Scottish men
who have sex with men
Wawer - no protection (and maybe increased risk) to women
Turner - no protection to women
Baeten - no protection to women
Chao - greater risk to women
Thomas - no protection in a high-risk population
Shaffer - no protection by traditional circumcision
Mor - no protection to men (weaselly-worded and data-mined to look as if there is)
Thornton - no protection to men who have sex with men in London
Moiti - circumcised youth at greater risk in Uganda
Brewer - circumcised youth at greater risk in Mozambique
Darby - no benefit in Australia 
Two Cochrane Reviews
Where circumcision doesn't prevent AIDS 
Between Correlation and Recommendation
A Vaccine? Hardly!
A Solution Looking For A Problem
the Role of the Mucosa
"Dry Sex"
Female Genital Cutting
Sexual Selection
Wife Inheritance
Heterosexual transmission - Europe vs the United States
A voice of sanity from UNAIDS
A voice of sanity from the Terrence Higgins Trust
A UK survey of gay men that found more circumcised men with HIV

The hazards of unblinded trials
Other studies that show no correlation or a negative correlation
   between intactness and HIV/AIDS

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